Special Chart of Grade, Standard, Chemical analysis (%), Hardness & Properties.  
GRADE STD. SPECN. C Mn Cr V W Mo OTHERS HARD Properties (Usage)    Abr. Gravity (Kg/cum)  
High Speed Steel AISI M2 .78~1.05 .15~.40 3.75~4.5 1.75~2.2 5.5~6.75 4.5~5.5 S.03, P.03 63~65 Rc"C" good red-hardness and retains its cutting edge (Lathe tools, Drills, Blade) Al 2750 Aluminium
AISI M35 .78~.88 .15~.40 3.75~4.5 1.75~2.2 5.5~6.75 4.5~5.5 Co-5 65~67 Rc"C" increased red-hardness properties of M42, and is less susceptible to shock          
AISI M42 1.05~1.15 .15~.40 3.5~4.25 .95~1.35 1.15~1.85 9~10 Co-7.8~8.7 65~67 Rc"C" excellent resistance to abrasion and very good red-hardness (Blade,Cutter)    C 2267 Carbon  
Hot Work Steel  5Cr AISI H11 .33~.43 .2~.5 4.75~5.5 .3~.6 Si-.8~1.2 1.1~1.6 S.03, P.03 38~52 Rc"C" High resistance to hot wear (Hot Extrusion Dies, Hot Forging Dies)   Co 8746 Cobalt  
AISI H13 .33~.43 .2~.5 4.75~5.5 .8~1.2 Si-.8~1.2 1.1~1.6 S.03, P.03 38~52 Rc"C"              
Cold Work Steel HCHCr / WPS DIN 1.2379 / AISI D2 1.50 - 12.00 1.00 - 1.00 - 58~66 Rc"C" High dimensional stability, wear resistance, excellent edge holding (Thread rolling dies, Draw plates, Cutters, Reamer) Cr 7150 Chromium
High Carbon High Chromium AISI D3 2.25 - 12.00 - - - -   Cu 8930 Copper  
Oil Hardening Non Shrinking AISI 01 0.90 1.00 0.50 - 0.50 - - 58~65 Rc"C" Economic, Good Hardness (Blanking-Stamping Dies, Punch, Gauge Tools)   Fe 7850 Iron  
Mould Steel  DIN 1.2311 / 40CrMnMo7 / AISI P20 .28~.40 .6~1 1.4~2 Si-.2~.8 - .3~.55 S.03, P.03 50~51 Rc"C" Pre hardened high tensile tool steel (Die casting dies and injection molds)   Mg 1738 Magnesium  
 DIN 1.2316, X36CrMo17 / AISI 420 MOD .33~.44 ~1.5 15.5~17.5 Si-~1 Ni-~1 .8~1.3 S.03, P.03 48~49 Rc"C"              
    AISI 1020 .17~.23 .30~.60 - - - - - - Magnetic, Corrosive, Good machinabilty+ weldability (Bar, Angle, Gurder)   Mn 7210 Manganese  
Mild Steel (M.S.) AISI 1018 .14~.20 .60~.90 - - - - - -          
    IS 2062 A/B/C ~.23/22/20 ~1.5 - Si Ni - - -          
    AISI 410 ~.15 ~1.00 11.5~13.5 ~1.00 - - S.03, P.04 80 Rc."B" Good Impact Strength (Turbine blades, kitchen utensils, Pump shafts)   Mo 10188 Molybdenum  
    EN 56B / AISI 420 ~.15 ~1.00 12~14 ~1.00 - - S.03, P.04 201~255 Br. Excellent Polishability (Dental/surgical instruments, cutlery)   Ni 8800 Nickel  
Stainless Steel            (Magnetic-Noncorrosive) AISI 416 ~.15 ~1.25 12~14 ~1.00 - - S.15~, P.06   Excellent Machinability (Variety of screw machine part-nuts, bolts, screws)   P 2340 Phosphorus  
AISI 430 ~.12 ~1.25 16~18 ~1.00 - - S.03, P.04 140~179 Br. Non-heat treatable, Exellent formapbility (Utensils, Rims, Interior fixtures)   Pb 11340 Lead  
    AISI 431 ~.2 ~1 15~17 ~1.00 1.25~2.5 - S.03, P.04   excellent impact strength at high hardness levels with the best corrosion resistance of any martensitic stainless steels.           
Stainless Steel (NonMagnetic) AISI 202 ~.15 7.5~10 17~19 ~1.00 4~6 - S.03, P.06 80 Rc."B" Good strength (Kitchenware, Trolley, Sofa, Chairs)   S 2070 Sulphur  
AISI 303 ~.15 ~2.00 17~19 ~1.00 8~10 - S.15~, P.20   Precision-Excellent Machinability (in Watch, Sewing machine)   Si 2330 Silicon  
    IS 4Cr18Ni10 / EN 58E / AISI 304 ~.08 ~2.00 18~20 ~1.00 8~10.5 - S.03, P.045 80 Rc."B" Good Combination of  Corrosion Resistance, Farmability & Strength (Food, Dairy industries, Pharmasuitical)    (Preferable 304L for Welding Operation)   Sn 7280 Tin  
 
 
  IS 2Cr18Ni11 / AISI 304L ~.03 ~2.00 18~20 ~1.00 8~12 - S.03, P.045   Ti 4500 Titanium  
    AISI 310 ~.25 ~2.00 24~26 ~1.00 19~22 - S.03, P.045 80 Rc."B" Strongly resistant to heat (in Heating furnaces)   V 5494 Vanadium  
    IS 4Cr17Ni12Mo2 / AISI 316 ~.08 ~2.00 16~18 ~1.00 10~14 2~3 S.03, P.045 50 Rc."B" Good strength at high temperatures, High resistance to chemical corrosion  (Chemical, Pharmaceuitical ind.)  (Preferable 316L for Welding Operation)   W 19600 Tungsten  
    IS 2Cr17Ni12Mo2 / AISI 316L ~.03 ~2.00 16~18 ~1.00 10~14 2~3 S.03, P.045   Zn 7135 Zinc  
    SAE 1213 / BS EN 1A .07~.15 .80~1.2 - ~0.10 - - S.2~.3, P.07 Free Cut Free cutting (Low duty bolts, Nuts, Studs)     2200 PTFE  
Shafting Steel SAE 1040 / BS EN 8 .35~.45 .60~1.0 - .05~.35 - - S&P max.06 152~255 Br. Strength & wear resistant (Bolts, connecting rod, Crankshafts)  
    DIN CK60, IS 55C6, Sup9, SAE 1055 / BS EN 9 .50~.60 .50~.80 - .05~.35 - - S&P max.06 201~277 Br. Hardened & tempered (Cylinders, Gears, Rifle barrels)  
       IS 40Cr4Mo3 / SAE 4140 / BS EN 19 .35~.45 .50~.80 .90~1.5 .10~.35 - .20~.40 S&P max.05 201~415 Br. High tensile/bending strength (Same as EN 8)  
    IS 40Ni6Cr4Mo3 / 40Ni2Cr1Mo28 / SAE 4340 / BS EN 24 .35~.45 .45~.70 .90~1.4 .10~.35 1.3~1.8 .20~.35 S&P max.05 223~444 Br. High strength heavy section (Aircraft, Heavy vehicles shafts)  
Bearing Steel SUJ-2 / 100Cr6 / AISI 52100 / BS EN 31 .90~1.2 .30~.75 1~1.6 .10~.35 - - S&P max.05 58~63 Rc"C" Resitance to abrasion/loading (Bearings, Punches, Dies)          
Silver Steel   BS 1407 .95~1.25 .25~.45 .35~.45 .10~.35 - - S&P max.05 58~63 Rc"C"   Std.Specifications  
    DIN CK80, IS 80C6, AISI 1080, Sup3, BS EN 42J .75~.90 .6~.9 - .10~.35 - - S&P max.05 220 Br. Stability in tempering (Leaf, Volute, Helical, Plate springs)   SAE / AISI American  
Spring Steel BS EN 45 .55~.60 .70~1.0 - 1.5~2.0 - - S&P max.05 220 Br.       IS - Indian  
  50CrV4, SAE 6150 / BS EN 47 .45~.55 .50~.80 .80~1.2 ~0.5 V-0.15 - S&P max.05 235 Br. High torsional fatigue strength (Same as EN 45 for Heavy)   BS/EN-British Euro Norm  
    IS 16MnCr5 .14~.19 1.0~1.3 .8~1.1 .15~.35 - - S&P max.035 602 Rc."C"  Same as SAE 8620 (Automobile transmission parts)          
Case Hardening Steel IS 20MnCr5 .17~.22 1.0~1.4 1~1.3 .15~.35 - - S&Pmax.035          
  EN 362 / AISI SAE 8620 .18~.23 .70~.90 .40~.60 .20~.35 .40~.70 .15~.25 S&P max.04 602 Rc."C" For Case hardness (Pinions, Laysafts, Cage suspension)   Hardness Spec.  
 
 
  BS EN 353 ~0.2 .50~1.0 .75~1.25 ~0.35 1~1.5 .08~.15 S&P max.05 602 Rc."C" Same as EN 36 (Cams, Universal joint, Grooved shaft)          
  SAE 33i6 / BS EN 36B .12~.18 .30~.60 .60~1.1 .10~.35 3~3.75 - S&P max.05 602 Rc."C" High case hardness+core toughness (heavy duty gears)   Rc. - Rockwell No.  
 Nitriding Steel                       905M39 / BS EN 41B .35~.43 .40~.65 1.4~1.8 .10~.35 Al-.9~1.3 .10~.25 S&P max.05 602 Rc."C" Excellent dimensional control (Casting dies, Cams, Plastic Mould)   "B" at 100 Kg.  
Aluminium Cu  Mn Fe Si Mg *Other * Titanium and/or other grain refining elements   "C" at 150 Kg.  
  USA 1100 / IS 19000 / BS 1C ~0.1 ~0.1 0.60 ~0.5   0.10 Al min. 99% Lightly stresses (Packaging for transport, Equipment for food industries.)   Br. - Brinell No.  
  USA 6063 / IS 63400 / BS H 9  ~ 0.1 ~ 0.3 0.60 0.3~0.7 0.4~0.9 0.40 Cr max.10 Architectural sections with Good surface  (Furniture & Anodised sections.)          
  USA 2014 / IS 24345 / BS H15 3.5~5.0 0.3~1.2 0.70 0.5~1.2 0.2~0.8 0.50 - Best Machinability, Highly stressed (Aircraft, Ordnance & General Engg.)   ~ Range (law~high)  
  USA 6351 / IS 64430 / BS H30 ~ 0.1 0.4~1.0 0.60 0.6~1.3 0.4~1.2 0.30 Cr max.25 Good Machinability (Rail & Road vehicals, Bridges canes, trusses, Rivets.)          
Copper Alloys Cu  Zn Pb/Lead Sn/Tin P              
Brass BS 249 55~60 Remainder 2~3.5 -   0.75     Brass Nuts, Bolts & other Brass products          
AMPCO-18,AS C95210, 952C, 952 / SAE 68A,B / BS AB1 Remainder ~0.5 Fe-1.5~3.5 Mn-~1 Al-8.7~10.5 Ni-~1.0 TI-0.30   HB 90~140 In marine engineering & in Petroleum, Oil & Chemical Industries.          
AS C95810, 958C / BS AB2 Remainder ~0.5 Fe-4.0~5.5 Mn-~3 Al-8.8~10 Ni-4.~5.5 TI-0.20  HB 130~170           
AS C90710 / 904D / SAE 65 / BS PB1 86.9~89.2 - - 10.2~11.5 0.6~1.0   TI-0.60  HB 70~100 Bearings (aero/diesel engines, electrical generators and rolling mills. 
 
      -Pravin A. Jain  
AS C90810 / 907C / SAE 65 / BS PB2 84.9~88.5 ~0.3 ~0.50 11.2~13.0 0.25~0.6 Ni-~0.5 TI-0.20  HB 75~110 Gear and worn wheels         D.M.E., T.Eng.  
AS C92610 / 905C / ASTM 905 / BS G1 83.7~88.5 1.75~2.75 ~1.50 9.7~10.5 ~0.02 Ni-~1.0 TI-0.50  HB 70~95 Pressure tight bearing, Pumps & fittings, Valve & V. Bodies           
        Cu  Other UTS(PSI) Density Th.Cond. El.Cond. El.Resist.  Rockwell              
Cadmium Copper RWMA Group A Class 1 C16xxx Remainder Cd-.1~1.5            it is resistant to softening at elevated temperature (spot welding electrodes)          
Chromium Copper RWMA Group A Class 2 C18200 Remainder Cr-.6~1.2 70000 8.89gm/cc 3.24w/cm 92 % ACS 2.16 70 B high strength, corrosion resistance & hardenable (switch gears, circuit breaker)          
Zircon.Cr. Copper RWMA Group A Class 2 C18150 Rem.,Zr-.05~.25, Cr-.5~1.5 8.89gm/cc 3.24w/cm 85 % ACS                  
Beryllium Copper  NGK 25 / RWMA Group A Class 4 C17200 Be-1.8~2 Ni+Co=0.20 Min., Ni+Co+Fe= 0.6 Max., Cu+Be+Ni+Co+Fe= 99.5 Min High fatigue  strength, high ele. Cond. & wear resis., non magn.permability (connector, socket, switch, relay, diapharagm, micro switch, under sea repeater housing, die parts)          
Tungsten Copper  RWMA Group B Class 10 CuW70 30 W - 70 85000 14.18gm/cc 2.01w/cm 50 % ACS 3.41 90 B High resistance to arc erosion and good electrical conductivity (suited for facings and inserts for projection welding electrodes and flash and butt welding dies. It is recommended where high electrical conductivity)          
Tungsten Copper  RWMA Group B Class 11 CuW75 25 W - 75 90000 14.70gm/cc 1.89w/cm 48 % ACS 3.51 94 B          
Tungsten Copper  RWMA Group B Class 12 CuW80 20 W - 80 96000 15.58gm/cc 1.82w/cm 44 % ACS 3.9 98 B          
Tungsten  RWMA Group B Class 13 100W - W -100 100000 19.10gm/cc 1.25w/cm 30 % ACS 6.5 35~50 C (for welding or electro-brazing non-ferrous metals having good electrical Conductivity they are suited to weld copper & brass by special set-ups.           
Molybdenum RWMA Group B Class 14 100Mo - Mo -100 100000 10.15gm/cc 1.15w/cm 33 % ACS 5.2 92~98 B          
Non Metals   HDT heat distortion temperature Melting Point Tensile Strgth (psi) Coefficient of Friction SP.GRAVITY Density Shore D pencil              
PTFE (PolyTetraFluroEthylene) 300C (572F) 330C (626F) 6240 0.05-0.10 2.2 2200 R58 Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) shows a remarkable chemical resistance and it is insoluble in all known solvents. It is attacked only by molten alkali metals and by fluorine at high temperatures. PTFE is incombustible and may be used up to 260C (300C for short periods). PTFE's coefficient of friction is extremely low and it shows the effect of self lubrication with constant mechanical properties which makes it particularly suitable for bearings, joints, O-rings, stirring bars, hazardous materials bottle pouers, syringes, crucubles, evaporating dishes etc. PTFE may be shaped by compression and sintering into bottles and beakers where its chemical stability and non-wettability make it suitable for use in extreme circumstances. Dynalab Corp's plastic fabrication shop fabricates thousands of catalog and custom PTFE products.          
Nylon (Polymide)   99C  (210F) 216C (420F) 5800   1.13   R92 Nylon (Polyamide), invented in 1928 by Wallace Carothers (DuPont) is considered to be the first engineering thermoplastic. It is one of many heterochain thermoplastics which has atoms other than C in the chain. Nylon is created when a condensation reaction occurs between amino acids, dibasic acids and diamines. Commercially Nylon is commonly used in the production of tire cords, rope, belts, filter cloths, sports equipment and bristles. It is particularly useful when machined into bearings, gears, rollers and thread guides. Dynalab Corp's plastic fabrication shop fabricates thousands of catalog and custom Nylon products.           
Delrin      180F 80C 320F 160C 8800   1.41   R107 Acetal became commercially available in 1960. Acetal is a by-product of a two-step reaction between an alcohol and an aldehyde. Formed by polymerizing anhydrous formaldehyde to form an oxymethlylene chain. Acetal is a popular and versatile crystalline engineering polymer. It is very strong and exhibits good chemical resistance. Acetal is a tough material with good dimensional stability, and a low coefficient of friction. Acetal machines well and is relativiely easy to process. Typical applications include gears, springs, plates, bushings and housings. Acetal is formaldehyde based and care should be taken when processing; formaldehyde released is a skin and eye irritant. Dynalab Corp's plastic fabrication shop fabricates thousands of catalog and custom LDPE products.           
PC (Polycarbonate)   250F 121C 300F 149C 10000   1.2   R75 Polycarbonate (PC) is a linear polycarbonic acid ester prepared from a dihydric phenol. Polycarbonate possesses extraordinarily good dimensional stability with a high impact strength which is maintained over a wide temperature range. This makes PC ideal for the manufacture of laboratory safety shields, vacuum desiccators and centrifuge tubes.

 
         
HDPE (High Density Polyethylene)   248F 120C  266F 130C 4550    0.95   SD65 A linear polymer, High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is prepared from ethylene by a catalytic process. The absence of branching results in a more closely packed structure with a higher density and somewhat higher chemical resistance than LDPE. HDPE is also somewhat harder and more opaque and it can withstand rather higher temperatures (120 Celsius for short periods, 110 Celsius continuously).           
LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene)    176F 80C 248F 120C  1700   0.92   SD55 The first of the polyolefins, Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) was originally prepared some fifty years ago by the high pressure polymerization of ethylene. Its comparatively low density arises from the presence of a small amount of branching in the chain (on about 2% of the carbon atoms). This gives a more open structure. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) is a most useful and widely used plastic especially in dispensing bottles or wash bottles.          
PU (PolyUrethane)                            
ACRYLIC (Polymethylmethacrylate) 194F 90C  212F 100C  7000   1.18   R120 Acrylic is a rigid plastic with a high degree of transparency. It is resistant to inorganic acids and alkalis but is attacked by a wide range of organic solvents. Acrylic's clarity and stability make it very suitable for the manufacture of burets and in sheet form it may be cemented to produce tanks, trays, racks etc. Acrylic may be used at temperatures up to 70C continuously and to 90C for short periods. 10mm thick Acrylic provides an effective barrier for Beta Radiation Protection. Dynalab Corp's acrylic fabrication shop fabricates thousands of catalog and custom acrylic products.          
ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) 176F 80C 221F 105C 4300   1.04   R110 Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) is the polymerization of Acrylonitrile, Butadiene, and Styrene monomers. Chemically, this thermoplastic family of plastics is called "terpolymers", in that they involve the combination of three different monomers to form a single material that draws from the properties of all three. ABS possesses outstanding impact strength and high mechanical strength, which makes it so suitable for tough consumer products. Additionally, ABS has good dimensional stability and electrical insulating properties. Dynalab Corp's plastic fabrication shop fabricates thousands of catalog and custom ABS products          
PP(Polypropylene)   275F 135C 338F 170C  4500   0.90   R95 Polypropylene (PP), a polymer prepared catalytically from propylene which differs from HDPE by having an isostatic replacement of a hydrogen atom by a methyl group on alternate carbon atoms in the main chain. Although largely unreactive chemically the presence of the methyl groups makes Polypropylene slightly more susceptible to attack by strong oxidizing agents than HDPE. A major advantage is Polypropylene's higher temperature resistance, this makes PP particularly suitable for items such as trays, funnels, pails, bottles, carboys and instrument jars that have to be sterilized frequently for use in a clinical environment. Polypropylene is a translucent material with excellent mechanical properties and it has gradually replaced the polyethylenes for many purposes. Dynalab Corp's plastic fabrication shop fabricates thousands of catalog and custom PP products.     
PVC (Polyvinylchloride)   158F 70C 176F 80C   6500   1.34   R105 Polyvinylchloride (PVC) has a linear structure similar to polyethylene but with a chlorine atom replacing a hydrogen atom on alternate carbon atoms. PVC itself is hard and rigid but the addition of phthalate esters as plasticizers makes it soft and pliable and ideal for gloves, photographic dishes and tubing. Polyvinylchloride is generally transparent with a bluish tint. It is attacked by many organic solvents but it has a very good resistance to oils and it has a low permeability to gases. In its rigid from PVC is available in sheets which can readily be welded to produce tanks, trays and troughs. It is not recommended for use above 70 Celsius although it can be taken to 80 for short periods. Dynalab Corp's plastic fabrication shop fabricates thousands of catalog and custom PVC products.    
PEEK(PolyEtherEtherKetone)   160C (320F) 633 f 14000